YEAR 8 MINING ASSIGNMENT

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The mineral How they are used How they are found How they are formed Image
Bauxite (Aluminium Ore) The production of aluminium which is used in many things. Aluminium is found inside of igneous rocks, it is mined by open-cut mining. Bauxite is formed by in the wearhering of other aluminous rocks. Bauxite
Iron Ore The production of iron which is used in the production of steel. Iron is found inside of sedimentary rocks, it is mined primarily in open-cut mines. All iron ore mainly form at one time when oranisums in the ocean started to photosynthesize and created oxyen which reacted with other elements createing the iron. Iron
Lithium Used for the production batteries. Lithium is found inside of sedimentary rocks, it is mined primarily by hard rock mining. Lithium is not a naturaly occurring element as which it must be extracted from of the substances such as spodumene Lithium and john was here
Gold Used for jewlery Gold is often found inside of quartz, it is mined by hard rock mining. Gold is created under the earths crust. The magma melts the gold and it gathers under the crust before being pushed up. Gold
Lead Used to be used in many things, now used in radiation protection, weights on car wheels, wirering, and aummunition. Lead is usually found inside of Lead orebodies, it is mined by primarily mined by hard rock mining. Lead is extracted from galena, which comes fro the ground. Lead
Diamond Dimond is used in jewlery and drills and other industrial purposes. Diamonds are found inside of Kimberlite rocks or alluvial deposits. Diamonds are usually mined open-cut or by hard rock mining. Dimonds formed 3 billions years ago far under the earths crust where extremely high pressure pushed carbon atoms together making dimonds. Diamond
Uranium Uranium in used in nuclear power. Uranium is found inside of igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rock. There are lots of techniques to mine Uranium including: Open pit, Underground, Heap leaching, In-situ leaching and seawater recovery. Earths uranium was fromed in supernovas and the merger of nutronstars, it became enriched in atomic decay. y uranium
Zinc Used in the production od titaniumsed in the production od titanium Zinc is found in sedimentary rocks, it is mainly mined by hard rock mining. Zinc ore is not naturaly pure but is found in galena. zinc
Ilmenite Use to galvanise things and in rubber and plastic. Ilmenite is found in igneous rocks, it is commonly mined by excavating. Ilmenite is formed in the cooling of magma far under the ground. imenite
Zircon Zircon is used in the production of Zirconium. Zircon is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, it is commonly mining or dredging zircon-rich sediments. Zircon is formed over millions of years when other rocks ar eroded and small amounts of zircon are released. zircon
Rutile Used in the production of titanium and pigments. Rutile is found in metamorphic rocks, it is commonly mined by extracting it from sand. Rutile is formed when magma cools on the earths crust. rutile
Black Coal Black coal, opposed to brown coal, is a high energy coal which creates less emmisions than brown coal. Coal is usually found in-between sedimentary rocks, it can be mined by surface mining or underground mining. All of our coal was created at one time between when plants had started beacoming more complex and before oranisums learnt to break it down. All the dead plants couldn’t decompose so it became coal. coal
Silver Jewlary, table wear, mirrors and early photography. Silver is usually found in lead, zinc, gold and copper ore deposits. Silver is commonly extracted from ore by smelting or chemical leaching. Silver exists dissolved in water and as the water makes it out to sea the silver sinks in the cooler water forming at the bottom. silver
Cobalt Used in magnets and jet turbines. Cobalt is found in the mineral’s cobaltite, skutterudite and erythrite. It is mainly formed as a by product of nickel refining. Most cobalt we use is not mined and is infact created in the refining of nickel. cobalt
Copper Used in wires. Copper is found in both sedimentary and igneous rocks. Copper Is mostly mined in open pit mines. Copper is oringaly in small amounts in magma however when is cools as the copper has a lower melting point it becomes more and more concentrated in the magma eventually solidifying in a conentrated form. coblat

Types of rock

There are three types of rock,
- Igneous
- Sedimentary
- Metamorphic
Igneous rock is rock formed by cooling magma.
Sedimentary rock is formed when little bits of rock are pushed together.
Metamorphic rock is formed when either of the other two are compressed under intense heat and pressure.


Methods of mineral extraction

Methods

Surface Mining, Open-Pit Mining and Underground mining.

"Flow" chart

Gold extraction.
1. Remove gold bearing rock from ground.
2. Break down large pieces into smaller pieces.
3. Grinded into a fine powder.
4. Thicken the slurry with water.
5. Put it into a leaching tank to dissolve gold.
6. Put small carbon grains into tank for gold to adhere to carbon.
7. Move carbon to stripping vessel to sepa5rate it from carbon.
8. Allow the gold to be Electrowon.
9. Smelt the gold.
10. Finished


Leading mining companies in Australia

and what they mine.

BHP Billiton

Iron, steel, copper, silver, aluminum, oil, and gas.

Newcrest

Gold.

Rio Tinto

Aluminium, iron ore, copper, dimond.

Main exports and where they are exported to


The mineral Where they are exported to Price in AUD per tone
Gold Gold is mainly exported to India, China and the United Kingdom. $56,357,080.94
Coal Coal is mostly exported to Eastern Asia. $101.51
Copper Copper is mainly exported to China and Malaysia. $8,698.07
Aluminum Aluminum is mainly exported to Japan, South Korea and America. $2,602.00
Silver Silver is mainly exported to Japan. $547,850.00
Iron Iron is mainly exported to China and Japan. $120.20

Mining tax

The minig tax in Australia was a tax of 30% of the "superprofits" of non-renewable reasourses. It was supposed to raise $22.5 billion but it didn’t, only $2 billion dollars were actually raised in 2012. It only cost $60 million dollars to run per year including advertising so it was profited more than 1.5 Billion dollars. When a liberal coalition was formed in 2013 the liberals took pity on these poor mining companies, who were barely paying the tax anyway, and repealed this tax which as gave the Australian people $1.9 billion dollars.


Bibliography

Bauxite | ore. (2019). Retrieved 12 November 2019, from https://www.britannica.com/science/bauxite
King, H. (2019). Iron Ore: Sedimentary Rock - Pictures, Definition & More. Retrieved 12 November 2019, from https://geology.com/rocks/iron-ore.shtml
World Lithium Supply. (2019). Retrieved 12 November 2019, from http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2010/ph240/eason2/
Australian mineral facts | geoscience australia. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ga.gov.au/education/classroom-resources/minerals-energy/australian-mineral-facts
King, H. M. (n.d.). Ilmenite: An ore of titanium | uses and properties. Retrieved from https://geology.com/minerals/ilmenite.shtml
Bhp billiton | australian company. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/BHP-Billiton
How diamonds are formed | cape town diamond museum. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.capetowndiamondmuseum.org/about-diamonds/formation-of-diamonds/
How diamonds are formed | cape town diamond museum. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.capetowndiamondmuseum.org/about-diamonds/formation-of-diamonds/
Copper | geoscience australia. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ga.gov.au/education/classroom-resources/minerals-energy/australian-mineral-facts/copper#heading-5
Geology of silver. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.providentmetals.com/knowledge-center/precious-metals-resources/geology-of-silver.html

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